The Effects of the Supplementation with Snakehead Fish and Sea Cucumber Extracts on Platelet-Derived Growth Factor in Post-Operative Patients

Otniel Wendy Wahono, JB. Suparyatmo, Dian Ariningrum


Wound healing is a complex process that involves the interaction between Extracellular Matrix (ECM) cells and mediated by cytokines and various growth factors, especially platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) which plays a role in almost every phase of wound healing. Applying snakehead fish and sea cucumber extract containing amino acids and fatty acids in post-operative patients is expected to increase PDGF levels and enable the acceleration of the wound healing process. This study was a double-blind randomized control trial with a pre and post-treatment approach which involved 34 post-operative patients divided into two groups; the control group (K1) and treatment group (K2) and was carried out from April to June 2019 at Dr. Moewardi Hospital in Surakarta. Independent sample T-test was used for data with normal distribution to determine the mean differences between the control and treatment groups, while the Mann-Whitney test was used for data with the abnormal distribution. Also, to determine the mean difference before and after the treatment of one paired group, a paired T-test was used for data with normal distribution, while the Wilcoxon test was used for data with the abnormal distribution. p < 0.05 was significant with 95% Confidence Intervals (CI). The supplementation of snakehead fish and sea cucumber extract significantly increased PDGF levels in the treatment group (K2) compared to the controls group (K1) (p <0.001). Our findings showed that snakehead fish and sea cucumber extract were able to increase PDGF levels in post-operative patients on the fourth day.


Snakehead fish and sea cucumber extract, PDGF, surgical wound healing

Full Text:



Park SA, Raghunathan VK, Shah NM, et al. PDGF-BB Does Not Accelerate Healing in Diabetic Mice with Splinted Skin Wounds, PLoS ONE, 2014; 9(8)

Mohd J, Syah Y, Omar E, Pai DR, and Sood S. Cellular events and biomarkers of wound healing, Indian J Plast Surg, Volume 45(2), 2012; pp. 220-228.

Kiritsy CP, dan Lynch SE. Role of Growth Factors in Cutaneous Wound Healing: A Review, Critical Reviews in Oral Biology and Medicine, 1993; 4(5):729-760.

Pierce GF, Mustoe TA, Altrock BW, Deuel TF, and Thomason A. Role of Platelet-Derived Growth Factor in Wound Healing, Journal of Cellular Biochemistry, 1991; Volume 45, pp. 319-326.

Ross R. Platelet-derivet Growth Factor, Ann Rev Med, 1987; 38; 71-79.

Tahara A, Yasuda M, Itagane H, et al. Plasma levels of platelet-derived growth factor in normal subjects and patients with ischemic heart disease, American Heart Journal, 1991; Volume 122, pp 986 992.

Yang M, Meng F, Ye J, Xu Y, Xiao B, and Chong B. Role of PDGF/PDGFR in Regulation of Thrombopoiesis: A Possible Explanation for Imatinib Mesylate-Induced Thrombocytopenia in the Treatment of CML, Blood Journal, 2012; 120: 3348.

Demoulin JB, and Almendras C. Platelet-derived growth factors and their receptors in normal and malignant hematopoiesis, Am J Blood Res, 2012; 2(1): 44-56.

Azeredo E, Monteiro R, and Pinto L. Thrombocytopenia in Dengue: Interrelationship between Virus and the Imbalance between Coagulation and Fibrinolysis and Inflammatory Mediators, Hindawi Publishing Corporation, 2015.

Schmidt MB, Chen EH, and Lynch SE. A review of the effects of insulin-like growth factor and platelet derived growth factor on in vivo cartilage healing and repair, OsteoArthritis and Cartilage 14, 2006; 403e412.

Liu G, Gurung AS, and Qiu W. Lateral flow aptasensor for Simultaneous Detection of Platelet-Derived Growth Factor-BB (PDGF-BB) and Thrombin, Molecules. Volume 24, 2019; 756: pp. 1-11.

Wahab SZA, Kadir AA, Hussain NHN, et al. The Effect of Channa striatus (Haruan) Extract on Pain and Wound Healing of Post-Lower Segment Caesarean Section Women, Hindawi Publishing Corporation, 2015; Volume 849647, p. 6.

Bordbar S, Anwar F, and Saari N. High Value Components and Bioactives from Sea Cucumbers for Functional Foods, Marine Drugs, 2011; Volume 9, pp. 1761-1805.

Fredalina BD, Ridzwan BH, Abidin AAZ, et al. Fatty acid compositions in local sea cucumber Stichopus chloronotus for wound healing. General Pharmacology, 1999; Volume 33, pp. 337-340.

Szabó A, Laki J, Madsen HO, et al. Early Rise in Serum VEGF and PDGF Levels Predisposes Patients With a Normal MBL2 Genotype to Restenosis After Eversion Endarterectomy, Stroke AHA Journals, 2007 38:2247-2253.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.