F.M. Judajana, Paulus Budiono, Indah Nuraini


The incidence of Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever (DHF) is obvious rapidly increasing and it may have existed previously, and specific
factors precipitating of the diseases can be identified in Indonesia population. These include environmental changes, demographic factors,
host immunity, micro organism variant and drug resistance suggesting that infection will continue to emerge, probably increase and
emphasizes the urgent need for effective surveillance. The Immunology approach of Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever as emerging diseases
has been advanced on two major fronts. First, the elucidation of the basic mechanisms associated antigen recognition, elimination,
rejection and immunological protection from recurrence. Secondly, to solve the clinical problem (diagnostic, therapeutic and prevention)
the application of the knowledge of immunological memory to diseases is used as a tool. Over expressed emerging pathogens such as
molecularly defined mutated antigen; this antigen as a target of specific immune reaction and has been encountered as a danger signal.
The current studies have shown that few immune competent cells (activated T cells and B cells) are exposed to antigen. The immune
consequence of infectious tissue induced Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC)/Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) molecules expression
on antigen presenting cell and have also shown, that an immunological reaction occurs in all organs in response to a number of diseases.
However, most infectious diseases express MHC/HLA class II molecules, in order to recognize the new mutated antigen and also express
the MHC/HLA class I molecules in order to eliminate those antigen. Progress in the genetic dissection of infectious diseases will also come
from the complementary analysis of the various biological and clinical phenotypes associated with a given infectious agent, strongly
suggesting that host factors play an important role in susceptibility or resistance to infection. In order to know the regulation process
between different types of pathogen and the host immune system, as well as the regulation factor of the cross talk between the different
components of the immune response in human as the host, it is important to get an understanding of the immune genetic system. This
research work is aimed at the locating and identifying the HLA class I which encode the protein as immune-component to be involved
in the pathogenesis of DHF as a viral infection base on the examination on 20 DHF patients and have already examined the HLA-A, -B
as HLA class I with the DNA typing-PCR. The results analysis with Chi square with Yates‘s Correction and the relative risk (Wolf rule)
is HLA-A*11,-A*24 and HLA-B*15,-B*18 has specific association with DHF on Indonesia population in East Java. The evidence of the
influence of the immune genetics marker to the DHF is provided by the following observations: (1) the level of infection often differs
greatly among infected subjects, (2) some infected subjects do not develop clinical disease, (3) the clinical manifestations of disease
severity, time to onset, duration of disease etc, may differ greatly among symptomatic patients. This finding opens the path to develop
effective means of immunotherapy and improved the diagnosis for lesions, in order to apply the current strategies for the developing of
immunodiagnostic, immunotherapy-based treatment through an infected target cell or developed new effective vaccines.


HLA, dengue haemorrhagic fever, immunogenetic marker

Full Text:




  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.